You can make clip-specific ("This clip") shortcuts, but supposing you mean changing the "By position" shortcuts, I assume not. Perhaps if that is something you really need to do, you could use some external MIDI mapping tool that allows you to switch mapping presets (that translate "custom" shortcuts into a set of standard shortcuts as defined in Resolume).
You can probably do that with BOME Midi Translator Pro, however I have not personally used that software. I have done MIDI translations using MIDI-OX, but MIDI-OX isn't "programmable" (I don't know of a way to switch presets/behavior from outside MIDI-IOX). You will have to ask someone who has used the Bome software about how to make it react to input (eg MIDI out from Resolume indicating Deck change).
Bome Software - MIDI Translator Pro